Protecting the Nile

Protecting the Nile

Protecting the Nile 

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Palms and the river Nile by night

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The National Water Resources Plan (NWRP) of Egypt

Given the importance of water for the socio-economic development of the country, the Government of Egypt is committed to take all necessary means and measures to manage and develop the water resources of the country in a comprehensive and equitable manner. The growing population and economic activities have increased the pressure on the water system, both with respect to quantity as quality of the water. Investments are needed to safeguard these precious resources and thus priorities have to be set. Infrastructural projects and improvements of the operation and maintenance of the system are required. At the same time institutional changes will be needed to decentralise and integrate the various activities. Developments in the legal and regulatory environment have to support these changes.


All people in Egypt have in some way a stake in how the water is managed. Farmers require water for irrigation, factory workers need water for their production processes and all of us need water for drinking and sanitary purposes. We are all stakeholders and this requires that the development and management of the water resources should follow a participatory approach.

The Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI) has, according to its constitutional mandate, the prime responsibility for the development and management of the water resources in Egypt. This management and development is done to support the socio-economic activities of the country. The main stakeholders representing these socio-economic activities are the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Health and Population. Other important stakeholders at Ministerial level are the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and New Communities, the Ministry of  Water Supply and Sanitation Utilities, the Ministry of Local Development, the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Transportation, the Ministry of Planning, the Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of Electricity. Through their policies these Ministries influence the national water resources. Cooperation between the Ministries is needed in order to develop the full potential of the water resources.

In addition to these ministries, water resource management should take into account the views and policies of the regional and local stakeholders. The on-going decentralisation in Egypt will increase the role of these regional and local stakeholders in water management. This includes the Governorates, farmers, industries, Water User Associations, NGO’s, etc.

Last, but certainly not least the views and interest of the general public should be taken into account. A process of public participation that considers their interest should be well reflected.

Water Resources Management to Achieve National Development Goals of Egypt

The objective of water resources development is derived from the national development goals and policies. In general terms the national development goals related to water are:

·         to increase the economic growth of the country and to increase employment;

·         to increase the inhabited space of Egypt outside the Nile Valley and the Delta, among others by:

o   developing new cities

o   developing the Eastern Delta and Sinai (i.e. the El Salam Canal)

o   developing New Valley areas in Southern Egypt (i.e.Tushka project; East Owenat)

·         to protect public health by means of provision of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities

·         to protect the Nile and other fresh water resources from pollution.


These national goals are made more specific in the policies from the various ministries. The overall objective of water resources development in Egypt integrates these sector policies and is given below.

Facing the Challenge

The National Water Resources Plan 2017 (NWRP) deals with the protection, development and equitable distribution of water resources

in Egypt. The NWRP 2017 was officially endorsed by the Government of Egypt in 2005 and is implemented through efforts of nine (9) partner Ministries or agents thereof.

Facing the Challenge (FtC) is the name of the endorsed strategy (planning framework) that provides the directions in which Egypt needs to develop and manage its Water Resources in order to avoid serious water shortages in the future.

The strategy aims “to support economic development of Egypt on the basis of sustainable resource use, while

protecting and restoring the natural environment”.

NWRP Summary English.pdf


Sector Policy / Objectives

· Economic Development

· Social Development

· Meeting Water Needs (Quality, Quantity, Distribution)

· Protecting Health and Environment


NWRP "Purpose"

To support the socio-economic development of Egypt on the basis of sustainable resource use  (..), while protecting and restoring


the natural environment.


NWRP "Specific Objectives"


1. The supply of drinking water for domestic uses and the provision of sanitation services, according to the standards and targets of MOHP,


NOPWASD and MoLD, on a cost-recovery basis but taking into account the right on basic requirements of all people.

2. The supply of water for industrial purposes and the provision of sewerage treatment facilities on a cost-recovery basis.

3. The supply of water for irrigation based on a participatory approach and cost-recovery for operation and maintenance.

4. The protection of the water system from pollution, based on a polluter-pays principle and the restoration of water systems, in

particular the ecologically valuable areas.


NWRP Pillars & Interventions

1. Developing additional Water Resources

1.1.      Add more conventional and non-conventional water resources to the country's water budget


2. Better using existing Water Resources

2.1. Raise water use efficiency

2.2. Protect agricultural lands, improve soil fertility and productivity

2.3. Improve water distribution system to enhance water delivery

2.4. Improve water availability


3. Water Quality Management

3.1. Prevent pollution of water resources

3.2. Treat polluted water resources

3.3. Control pollution of water resources


4. Enabling Environment

4.1. Improve planning capacity, financing, and cooperation in the water sector

NWRP Pillars and Measures English.pdf


NWRP Cooperation Platform

The NWRP's cooperation platform is built around different vertical and horizontal lines of cooperation and coordination that can be established

within and between different partner agencies. The main elements of the cooperation platform (highlighted) are positioned in way to allow continuous

follow of data and information at all levels and in the mean time provides appropriate fora for mutual planning and exchange of experiences.





The Coordination Platform comprises several elements that are described in detail below. The main units are:

· Higher Ministerial Committee (HMC)

· Technical Committee (TC)

· Governorate Water Resource Committee (GWRC)

· National Water Resource Unit (NWRU)

· Ministry Water Resource Units (MWRU)

· Governorate Water Resource Units (GWRU)


These are all intended to be permanent structures fitting within the administrative structure of the various bodies to which they belong.

The HMC, in cooperation with the CoG, operates at the highest decision-making level. The TC provides coordination at central level among

ministries and governorates, while the GWRC provides coordination on water issues within each governorate. The units act as secretariats, providing

support to these committees.


NWRP – CP Introduction

The NWRP-CP is an institutional project directed primarily at assisting the Central Unit of the National Water Resources Plan (NWRP-CU)

of the MWRI in establishing an appropriate, effective, and sustainable platform for the coordinated implementation of the NWRP by various

stakeholders. The project’s main objective is to ensure the coordinated, efficient and timely implementation of NWRP through strengthened

capacity of and coordination among NWRP partner agencies. The Plan, which was endorsed in 2005, provides an overview of the water

sector in Egypt, the present and future estimated uses of water, the related risks and problems, and some 92 (consolidated and clustered

into 49; by NWRP-CP in coordination with PAs) implementation measures were identified in order to reach the national objectives. For each

measure the main and secondary stakeholders were identified together with the organization responsible for its implementation as well

information on estimated investment and recurrent costs. Creating the receptive environment for collaborative planning, decision making,

and implementation by the executive bodies involved is the key thrust of the project.


Project Scope and Location

The National Water Resources Plan Coordination Project (NWRP-CP) is financed by the Government of Egypt and complemented

by a grant from the Government of the Netherlands. The project, which started in January 2009, is being implemented by the National

Water Resources Unit (NWRU) within the Planning Sector of the MWRI, with the assistance of a consortium of Consultants led by

Euroconsult Mott MacDonald, to ensure the coordinated, efficient, and timely implementation of the National Water resources Plan

by MWRI and the other partners involved in water resources planning and management.


Main Activities

  • Understand the National Water Resources Plan; it is a key prerequisite that governorates’ units and committees become familiar and getting acquainted with NWRP implementation measures, programmes, and coordination platforms. In a two-day workshop per governorate, both GWRU and General Executive Council members become familiar with the plan through presentations, group assignments etc. This activity has been completed in all three pilot governorates.


  • GWRP structure is agreed; the NWRP-CP prepares a template for the GWRP, based on the NWRP, which is circulated to the governorates. In a workshop in Ismailia in May 2010, selected members of all Governorates are familiarized with and discussed the template. This is now complete; and the GWRP layout, contents, and details are generally agreed. The GWRP template is finalized; the final version of the GWRP will have to be prepared in accordance with the feedback from the governorate partners by July 2010. An important dimension will incorporated to allow more openness in data acquisition. However, minor modifications will be made whenever deemed necessary during the evolutionary process.


  • Describing a water sector profile for the Governorate; inventory of existing, emanating and planned water infrastructure, hydrologic data and water availability, water using activities, present and future water demands, population data and other human impacts and pressures, socio-economic and demographic data, and the institutional and legal framework will be initiated June 2010. This mapping exercise is crucial for any future planning activity.


Depending upon data availability and accessibility and the scope of work, significant part of this effort could be carried out by the GWRU staff supported by NWRU together with national and international consultants to be completed by November 2010. Based upon this inventory the GWRP can be drafted; consequently this inventory has to be updated regularly. A proper mechanism should be established so that concerned agencies periodically supply GWRUs with real time data automatically for updating archives and building scenarios.


  • Data synthesis; the data necessary to develop the GWRP will be collected initially from previous projects' and studies' reports and publications. Missing or incomplete data will be collected from the concerned agency; as illustrated in Annex (A). The time designated for this data interpretation, consolidation, and verification is September 2010 through January 2011. Considerable training and coaching activities are planned; on top of that the capacity to plan and to generate relevant data together with data assessment with respect to integrity, accuracy, and validity (compared against real measurements or other sources for cross checking) will be promoted. Maps are prepared in digital format in order to perform spatial water resources planning, using simple GIS technique. Data collection and synthesis will be carried out conjunctively, so the analysis will be completed by the end of 2010 and consolidated by March 2011. It is iterative process that goes parallel to activities 5 and 6.


  • Stakeholder identification and analysis; a very important stage is the scan of stakeholders and the identification of the respective interests and roles and responsibilities that every agency, water users' group or water users' representative should play in the establishment of the GWRP. Part of this work has been done in previous projects. It is done in close co-operation with the GWRC with support from NWRU and the consultants, during August and September 2010.


  • Identification of NWRP (2017) measures, programs and projects to be implemented or applied in each governorate; GWRU members make an inventory of activities and measures running in or relevant for the particular Governorate; in full consultation with the agencies dealing with water management. Each GWRU may confer with the administrations of the agencies or the available Governorate databases of the Information and Decision Support Centers. Budget lines have to be articulated, in terms of national budgets compared with additional local funds. Consequently, gaps can be identified. Possible options to close the gaps will be searched at a later stage based on the different fund generation opportunities possible. Both NWRU and the consultants support the GWRU and other governorate agencies in this assignment. The foreseen date for this activity is October and November 2010.


  • Establish GWRP Coordination Framework; based upon the programs and measures previously identified, NWRU staff could facilitate a workshop for GWRU and GWRC to formulate co-ordination set-up that responds to the needs associated with the measures, programs, and projects in the inventory; with the objective to convey these needs through the GWRC to the Executive Council. GWRC transfers co-ordination requirements to the plenary Executive Council for incorporation in annual plans and the necessary regular monitoring and follow-up. The expected date for this is December 2010.


  • Define Governorate Development Priorities; important is to determine planning priorities for each Governorate, link them up with the national priorities and writing a chapter in the annual plan for the Governorate by GWRU and GWRC on the governorate shortlisted priorities with relative weight assigned to rank them up. This could be carried out during December 2010 through February 2011.


  • Coordinated analysis of scenarios and planning alternatives; the water demands estimated (based on codes and water duties) will have to balance the water supply (based on available water resources and potential). A gap is most probably anticipated which calls for drawing up plans to minimize losses, improve efficiency, and increase recycling within each governorate. If proven inadequate, strategic and management decisions will have to be formulated, debated based on the advantages and disadvantages of each option, specificity of the governorate, pre-defined priorities, and national policies. Certain tradeoffs and compromises may be addressed and hence allowing wider range of interventions and initiatives to be introduced. Decisions on the various scenarios are made by the GWRC. The deadline for this activity is tentatively marked for May 2011.


  • Compile GWRP into standard report; composing a Draft Governorate Water Resources Plan and present the plan to the Secretary General of the Governorate Executive Council and the MWRI central for comments and feedback is due during July 2011. This draft should include the projects and measures together with their associated costs. Establishment of the revised version of the plan will be through a series of consultation and further consolidation workshops during August and September 2011. One or two workshops per governorate are envisaged in addition to one collective workshop for the three governorates. The final version of the GWRPs could be justifiably ready for approval by December 2011.


NWRP CP main results and Performance Indicators:

The conceptual framework of the NWRP Coordination Project is built around identifying and creating coordination mechanisms for implementation of the plan, supporting and building up the capacity of the primary stakeholders and partner agencies in water resources planning and management and reforming the institutional structures of the implementing agencies. The specific objectives of the coordination project are now reflected in the NWRP-CP Logical Framework as follows:

1. A receptive and supportive environment created for implementation of the NWRP

2. Co-ordination and decision making capacity strengthened

3. Capacity of NWRP and GWRP enhanced

4. NWRP planning procedures improved in partner ministries and governorates

5. Monitoring and impact evaluation in place


Progress towards achieving project objectives during the reporting period is thoroughly described in the remainder of this section.


Table 1: Project performance indicators data as of end of June 2012



Performance Indicator


Overall Goal:                               

To contribute to socio-economic development of Egypt on the basis of national and regional planning of sustainable water resources uses.


National Development Indicators (GDP, Economic Growth Rate, Poverty Reduction, Living Standards, Health Conditions, etc…) are improved.


This can only be assessed within a reasonable time after the project; i.e. “ex-post” evaluation


The project is working with the NWRU to link NWRP measures and priorities with socio-economic development indicators as part of the overall M&E system

. Socio-economic development is a national effort to which the NWRP will directly and indirectly contribute.


Coordinated, efficient and timely implementation of the NWRP by MWRI and other partners involved in water resources planning


At least 50 % of NWRP measures are in the process of implementation by the end of 2012.


Data is now available

The M&E system of the project indicates that 46 out of 49 (94%) of the NWRP measures are being implemented; 14 out of 19 (74%) of the priority measures are progressing satisfactorily (as of mid 2012).


Coordination among NWRP partner agencies is strengthened


·       At least 50% of the NWRP's measures are incorporated in the ministerial Five Years Plans (2012 - 2017)


·       At least 10 water resources management issues / discussions are settled by the NWRP coordination platforms

Data is partly available

·   Five years plans have been prepared; all (20) investment measures  are incorporated

·   Questionnaire will be prepared to collect data for the relevant indicators.


Result 1

A receptive and supportive environment for implementation of the NWRP created



·       Number of agencies / individuals participated in different activities of the NWRP per year


·       Number of individuals actively engaged in subject matters meetings and discussions


·       At least 5 coordination / cooperation protocols signed and activated between different NWRP implementing partners


Data is not available yet

·   An analysis study will be conducted to collect data for relevant indicators

·   ü 4 cooperation protocols were signed with the IRU and WQMU at the MWRI as well as Ministry of Health and Holding Company for Water and waste water (80%)

Result 2

Co-ordination and decision making capacity strengthened


·       Coordination platform designed, established and operationalized



·       At least 8 ministerial decrees to establish Water Resources Units issued


·       At least 3 pilot governorates decrees to establish Governorates Water Resources Units issue


·       At least 8 ministerial WRUs and 3 Governorates WRUs established, equipped, staffed and operationalized

·     ü Coordination platform established and operationalized by TR 32 (100%).

·     ü 8 ministerial decrees to establish Water Resources Units in Ministries of Health, Environment, Agriculture, Industry, Local Development, Finance, Planning, tourism and Housing (100%).

·     ü 3 pilot governorates established WRUs in Qena, Fayoum and Behira (100%)

·     ü WRUs in ministries and pilot governorates were equipped and staffed (100%)

Result 3

Capacity of NWRP units and GWRP enhanced


·       MWRUs at the ministerial level are properly reporting on the progress and follow up on the NWRP measures implementation



·       Water resources profiles as well as water balance are properly produced and disseminated by GWRUs

Data is not available yet

·   M&E reporting system will be operationalized during the 2nd half of 2012

·   ü Water resources profiles and water balance of pilot governorates were presented in draft form to GWRCs for discussion and will be finalized and disseminated during the 2nd half of 2012

Result 4

NWRP planning procedures improved in partner ministries and governorates



·          At least 3 dedicated chapters involving NWRP measures are incorporated in the partner ministries five years plans


·       At least 3 pilot governorates Water resources Plans produced and disseminated


·       Updated and revised version of TR 24 incorporating the pillars, interventions and measures matrix is produced and relevant indicators identified and disseminated


Data is not completely available – Due February 2012

·   Five years plans are completed and issued (100%)

·   Governorate Water resources Plans are not issued yet. Will be issued by end of 2012 (70%)

·   ü Revised version of the measures matrix is issued and disseminated (100%)

Result 5

Monitoring and impact evaluation in place


·       Periodical reports on NWRP implementation status are produced and disseminated


·       At least 5 Decision Support system (DSS) reports produced and disseminated


·     In process- Due by September 2012

·     ü One produced (ASME runs at regional and governorates” level – report disseminated)        (50%)



Project Deliverables


Progress Reports and Work plans

·         Inception Report. Delivered on schedule and approved.

·         Annual Work plans for 2010, 2011 and 2012 (first two delivered on schedule and approved, work plan for 2012 and the first six months of 2013 is attached to this bi-annual report)

·         (6) Biannual reports for periods ending Dec 2009, Jun 2010, Dec 2010, Jun 2011, Dec 2011, Jun 2012 (first 4 delivered on schedule, others not yet due)

·         Final Report (not yet due)


Other Reports

·         Mission Reports (43 reports have been delivered to date  as required  within 14 days of completion of missions by international short term experts).

·         Technical Reports (as listed in Annex B). 


Awareness and advocate environment

·       Awareness raising workshops and seminars prepared and implemented.

·       Promotional materials items produced and distributed.

·       Web site established and logged in


Coordination platform

·       Coordination platform designed, established and operationalized.

·       Coordination / cooperation protocols signed and activated between different NWRP and/or PAs.

·       Ministerial WRUs and 3 Governorates WRUs established, equipped staffed and operationalized



·       Governorate Water Resources Plans in pilot governorates according to the agreed upon format, with support of the NWRP-CP: 3 chapters have been completed, the fourth chapter is under preparation, and the last chapter will follow after GWRC meetings.

·       National Water Resources 5 years Planning Cycle Update (2012-2017): five years investment plans for MWRI, MALR, and MHUUD (HCWW) have been prepared. NWRP update will be based on the integrated sectoral 5-year plans.

·       Updated and revised version of the pillars, interventions and measures matrix is produced and relevant indicators identified and disseminated: the matrix represents the core of updating TR 24 (TR 44) and is being used for periodical (quarterly) progress monitoring of NWRP implementation.

·       Planning concept with formats, participation protocols and planning documents: several parts are currently ready; Planning Structure (TR 50) will be completed during 2012.

·       Policy / long term strategic planning guidelines: the guidelines have been prepared and disseminated. GWRUs will be the next target group for policy development and strategic planning training. The guidelines are meant to support and enable the planning capacities PAs in the long-term.

·       Measures operational implementation plans: updated operational plans for the NWRP priority (critical) measures are being prepared by the concerned PAs according to the operational planning guidelines and the gaps identified by the gap analysis study.

·         List of NWRP priority investment: this list will be prepared based on the 5-years investment plans that are being finalized by the PAs in consultation with the Ministry of Planning. A national planning expert is supporting the process, including setting out the criteria and ranking.

·         Dedicated chapters involving NWRP measures are incorporated in the partner ministries five years plans: this will be addressed within the on-going 5-years planning exercise; it will be applied to both five years and annual plans.

·         Pilot governorates Water resources Plans (GWRPs): the GWRPs are nearly 70% complete; after discussion of water balance, scenarios, and planning alternatives the remaining parts of the GWRPs documents will be completed and endorsed by both MWRI and the GWRCs.

·         NWRP experiences in the implementation in the pilot governorates: a replication plan will be prepared for expansion in selected governorates; lessons learned will be incorporated. This activity has not yet started since it depends essentially on the finalization of the GWRPs.

·         Technical studies on related relevant technical issues: the list is being executed and updated regularly according to emerging issues and topics defined by MWRI and PAs (TC meetings).


Capacity Building (all events to be conducted within the limits of the agreed budget)

·      Needs assessment report produced and disseminated.

·      Training events for the TC, either as overseas exposure visits or national workshops with international participation have been completed.

·      Training events for the MWRU/GWRU staff in workshops with national trainers: the training needs assessment has been guiding the training programme; the achievements and future perspectives will be coordinated with the MWRI Training and Capacity Development Sector so that the modules and training material can be used for the routine training courses for all target groups.

·      Training events for the NWRU in 32 man-weeks overseas training: this activity is on track.

·      Different guidelines on various technical subjects: this activity is going according to plan.

·      TR on long-term capacity building plans for the water sector produced and disseminated: under preparation; it will be ready by the end of 2012.





M&E system

·         Creating a system that is capable of displaying progress on measures implemented by different partner agencies: system design, reporting format, configuration, and specifications have been completed. Contracting specialized database expert is on-going. The system building up, testing, and operationalization; including hand on training, is expected to be completed by August 2012.

·         Agreed set of progress and output indicators: progress indicators are defined and agreed upon, output and impact indicators will be finalized through two ISTE and NSTE missions during 2012.

·         Overall M&E Framework and periodical reports on NWRP status: the framework and reporting layout and contents are well agreed upon.

·         Methodology and guidelines for impact assessment: this is on-going and will be further elaborated on by two national and international missions; April through August 2012.


DSS system

·         Updated DSS to evaluate the 5-year plan and update the NWRP: the activity is initiated and two ISTE missions are dedicated to the DSS and Computational Modelling.

·         Upgraded and operational DSS system (ASME / RIBASIM / DELWAQ): on-going.

·         DSS scenario simulations reports: expected early 2013.

·         Data sharing protocols: partly completed, on-going.


List of International and National Consulting Team



Team Leader – Water Resources Planner

Mr. Brichieri - Colombi

Team Leader - Communication Specialist

Dr. Abdel Aziz Khaled

International Short Term Experts


Natural Resources Economist

Mr. Alexander Mueller

Institutional Specialist / Process Facilitator

Mr. Hans van Leeuwen

Water Quality / Environment Specialist

Mr. Hans van Zon

Training Specialist

Mr. Jetze Heun

Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist

Mr. Rob Nieuwenhuis

Deltares RIBASIM / DELWAQ Modeling Specialist

Mr. Wil van der Krogt

Deltares RIBASIM / DELWAQ Modeling Specialist

Mr. Jos Vangils

Water Resources Planner

Mr. Paul Blinch

Private Sector Specialist

Mr. Eric van Woerkom

Institutional Development Expert

Ms. Caroline Backer

Training Specialist

Mr. Jaspers

Management Expert

Mr. Gerard Fischer

National Long Term Experts


Senior Water Resources Planner

Dr. Ahmed Wagdy

Senior Water Resources Planner

Dr. Mustafa Ghaith

Senior Water Resources Planner

Dr. Mohsen El Arabawy

Senior Water Resources Planner

Dr. Aly El-Bahrawy

Seniro Institutional /Public Admin. Specialist

Mr. Samir Gharib

National Short Term Experts


Training Specialist and Moderator

Mr. El-Sayed Kheiralla

Macro Economist

Dr. Bassem Fayyad

Agro-economics Specialist

Dr. Lofty Nasr

Social Development Specialist

Mrs. Manal Eid

Water Quality Specialist

Dr. Magdy Salah El-Deen

Data Base Specialist

Mohamed Ezz El-Arab

Legal Expert

Dr. Saeed El-Hakeem

State Planning Expert

Dr. Mohamed El Shawy

Strategic Planning Expert

Dr. Mohamed El Folly

Institutional Expert

Dr. Salah Abdel Razik

Communication Expert

Mr. Mohamed Abdel Megid

Senior Water Resources Planner

Dr. Aly El Bahrawy

Data Base Expert

Dr. Hatem Fahim

Planning Expert (Environment Sector)

Dr. Fatheya Soliman

Planning Expert (Water and sanitation Sector)

Dr. Mohamed Sobhy


NWRP-CP log frame.pdf

Updated List of technical reports _ July 2012.pdf



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